Duck virus enteritis (duck plague) outbreak in an Australian black swan ( Cygnus atratus) flock at safari park in Bangladesh: A case report

Objective: Duck virus enteritis is a severe viral disease that kills ducks and swans worldwide. The clinical manifestations, gross pathology, molecular detection, and characterization of the duck virus enteritis virus (DVEV) in Australian black swans at a safari park in Bangladesh were described in this case report.
Materials and methods: On a safari park in Bangladesh, an Australian black swan flock exhibited clinical signs of anorexia, greenish watery diarrhea, increased thirst, partial paralysis, and death. Postmortem examinations of deceased swans revealed extensive pathological abnormalities in the trachea, liver, and spleen. To isolate DVEV, a viral inoculum produced from the liver and spleen of dead swans was implanted into 9-13-day-old embryonated duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) route. DVEV was confirmed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Phylogenetic analysis was used to determine the genetic relationship between the DVEV isolates from Australian black swans, and 16 DVEV isolates previously described in the GenBank.
Results: Hemorrhage was noted in the annular ring of the trachea, as well as an enlarged and hemorrhagic liver and spleen. The PCR assay amplified a 446-bp fragment of the DVEV DNA polymerase gene in the liver, spleen, and CAM homogenates. The phylogenetic analysis found that the DVEV isolates from swans were comparable to those from Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, China, Germany, the USA, and Egypt.
Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the DVEV was the cause of illness and mortality in an Australian black swan flock.

Habitat-, age-, and sex-related alterations in oxidative stress biomarkers in the blood of mute swans (Cygnus olor) inhabiting pomeranian coastal areas (Northern Poland)

The mute swan (Cygnus olor) can be considered a representative species of birds associated with the aquatic environment and responding very clearly to changes in the environment. Assuming that the condition of the mute swan population well reflects the state of the environment, this species was used in our research as a bioindicative species. Thus, the aim of our study was to elucidate the association between metal contents in soil samples collected from a habitat of mute swans and element contents in their feathers as well as the levels of biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, oxidatively modified proteins, and total antioxidant capacity in the blood of mute swans living in three agglomerations in coastal areas in the southern part of the Baltic Sea (Pomeranian region, northern Poland).
We compared the effects of inhabitation, age, and sex on the ecophysiological accumulation of metals in three wintering populations of the mute swan from coastal areas of northern Poland, i.e., Słupsk, Gdynia, and Sopot. In Słupsk, the anthropogenic pressure was related predominantly to the level of Al and, to a lesser extent, to the content of Rh and Ru. We found maximum levels of lipid peroxidation biomarkers in the blood of the mute swans from Gdynia (38.20 ± 6.35 nmol MDA·mL-1). At the same time, maximum levels of aldehydic and ketonic derivatives of oxidatively modified proteins were noted in the blood of swans from Sopot compared to the values obtained in mute swans from Słupsk and Gdynia. This trend suggesting high levels of oxidative stress biomarkers was also confirmed by a decrease in the total antioxidant capacity in these groups.

Mind the gap: From recommendation to practice in crisis management. Exploring the gap between the “lessons identified” during exercise cygnus and the UK government response to COVID-19

The failure to learn lessons from crises is a common observation. The UK Government has been criticized for its response to the COVID-19 crisis. Many critics have highlighted the Government’s apparent failure to learn the lessons from Exercise Cygnus, which made recommendations to improve the UK’s response to a pandemic. This article compares and contrasts the UK Government’s response with the exercise recommendations. It critiques the gaps using current crisis management literature and argues that to avoid future failings, more emphasis is needed on the effectiveness of recommendations from exercises. If this is not done, exercise lessons identified, and their recommendations will not be operationalized.
This article argues that the successful transition from policy recommendation to practice requires recommendations to be contextualized, so they are feasible and practical, before they can be institutionalized. It introduces a practical framework and organizational actions on how future exercises can close the gap from lessons identified to be learned and shape practice.

A comparison of the pharmacodynamic effects of intravenous ketamine-xylazine with alfaxalone in mute swans (Cygnus olor) presenting at a wildlife veterinary hospital

Objective: To compare effects of intravenous (IV) alfaxalone with ketamine-xylazine combination on anaesthetic induction, recovery and cardiopulmonary variables in mute swans.
Study design: Randomized, controlled, clinical study.
Animals: A group of 58 mute swans.
Methods: Swans were given either alfaxalone (10 mg kg-1; group A) or a combination of ketamine (12.5 mg kg-1) and xylazine (0.28 mg kg-1) (group KX) IV. Heart and respiratory rates, end-tidal carbon dioxide and peripheral haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded at 5 minute intervals during anaesthesia. Time from anaesthetic induction to intubation, from cessation of isoflurane to extubation, to lifting head, sternal recumbency and absence of head/neck ataxia were recorded. Anaesthetic and recovery quality were scored (1 = very poor; 5 = excellent). Data are presented as median (interquartile range). Significance was set at p < 0.05.
Results: In group A, 44% (12/27) of swans required mechanical ventilation for 2-14 minutes versus 3.2% (one/31) of swans in group KX (p = 0.0002). Heart rate was higher in group A than in group KX [146 (127-168) versus 65.5 (56-78) beats minute-1, respectively; p < 0.0001]. The isoflurane concentration required to maintain anaesthesia was higher in group A than in group KX [2.5% (2.0-3.0%) versus 1.5% (1.0-2.0%), respectively; p = 0.0001]. Time from cessation of isoflurane administration to lifting head was significantly longer in group A than in group KX [12 (9-17) versus 6 (4-7.75) minutes, respectively; p < 0.0001]. Anaesthesia quality scores were significantly better in group KX than in group A [4 (4-5) versus 4 (3-4), respectively; p = 0.0011], as were recovery scores [4 (3-5) versus 2 (2-3), respectively; p = 0.0005].
Conclusions and clinical relevance: Alfaxalone is a suitable anaesthetic induction agent for use in mute swans. There is a greater incidence of postinduction apnoea and a higher incidence of agitation on recovery with alfaxalone than with ketamine-xylazine.


I004 Cygnus Technologies 1000 ml 219 EUR

Sample Diluent Buffer

I028-100 Cygnus Technologies 100 ml 211 EUR

Sample Diluent Buffer

I028-1000 Cygnus Technologies 1000 ml 519 EUR

Sample Diluent Buffer

I028-500 Cygnus Technologies 500 ml 373 EUR

STAB-ELISA-rв„ў Enzyme Conjugate Diluent, HRP

I030 Cygnus Technologies 1000 ml 565 EUR

STAB-ELISA-rв„ў Enzyme Conjugate Diluent, HRP

I035 Cygnus Technologies 500 ml 365 EUR

STAB-ELISA-rв„ў Enzyme Conjugate Diluent, Alk. Phos.

I040 Cygnus Technologies 1000 ml 565 EUR

Block Wash Buffer

I044 Cygnus Technologies 1000 ml 527 EUR

STAB-ELISA-rв„ў Enzyme Conjugate Diluent, Alk. Phos.

I045 Cygnus Technologies 500 ml 365 EUR

HEPES Sample Diluent

I050 Cygnus Technologies 1000 ml 527 EUR

HEPES Sample Diluent

I050-100 Cygnus Technologies 100 ml 219 EUR

HEPES Sample Diluent

I050-500 Cygnus Technologies 500 ml 334 EUR

Conjugate Diluent/HRP

I056 Cygnus Technologies 1000 ml 565 EUR

Anti-Protein A

I060 Cygnus Technologies 1 mg 1066 EUR

anti-Protein A Capture Antibody

I061 Cygnus Technologies 1 mg 1066 EUR

Sample Diluent

I094 Cygnus Technologies 1000 ml 519 EUR

Sample Diluent

I094-100 Cygnus Technologies 100 ml 211 EUR

Sample Diluent

I094-500 Cygnus Technologies 500 ml 373 EUR

Conjugate Diluent

I095 Cygnus Technologies 1 L 565 EUR

Mix-N-Go Sample Diluent

I600 Cygnus Technologies 25 ml 180 EUR

Mix-N-Go Sample Diluent, 100mL

I600-100 Cygnus Technologies 100 ml 257 EUR

BSA Antigen

IM112 Cygnus Technologies 1 ml 285 EUR

Bovine IgG Antigen

IM113 Cygnus Technologies 1 ml 285 EUR

Bovine Transferrin Antigen

IM114 Cygnus Technologies 1 ml 285 EUR

CHO-CM HCP Antigen

IM115 Cygnus Technologies 1 ml 579 EUR

E.coli HCP Antigen

IM116 Cygnus Technologies 1 ml 579 EUR

Gamma-Ray Observation of the Cygnus Region in the 100-TeV Energy Region

We report observations of gamma-ray emissions with energies in the 100-TeV energy region from the Cygnus region in our Galaxy. Two sources are significantly detected in the directions of the Cygnus OB1 and OB2 associations. Based on their positional coincidences, we associate one with a pulsar PSR J2032+4127 and the other mainly with a pulsar wind nebula PWN G75.2+0.1, with the pulsar moving away from its original birthplace situated around the centroid of the observed gamma-ray emission. This work would stimulate further studies of particle acceleration mechanisms at these gamma-ray sources.

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